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MORISON,Ime G. & NWAZUE, Uwaoma C. : Market Dynamics and its Influence on Film Production and Directing in Nollywood

Market Dynamics and its Influence on Film Production and Directing in Nollywood

Ime G. MORISON

Department of Theatre Arts

University of Uyo

Uyo, Akwa Ibom State

E-Mail:

GSM: +234-703-809-3988

&

Uwaoma C. NWAZUE

Department of Theatre Arts

University of Maiduguri

Maiduguri, Borno State

E-mail:

GSM: +234-803-771-0337

Abstract

Several factors have influenced the production and direction of films in Nigeria over the years. These are, but not limited to, lack of funds, equipment, piracy, inadequate distribution and marketing channels, etc. Producers and directors are increasingly faced with the challenge of how to recoup funds invested in film productions owing primarily to the fragmented and cluttered nature of the Nollywood film market; as the volume of films released (i.e supplied) to the market greatly outweighs demand. Apart from this, the closed-market system of distribution operated by major distributors have forced producers and independent directors to sacrifice certain production elements and quality due to market influence in order to break-even as well as make gains on investment. Thus, using a mixed method of descriptive and inferential survey methodology, this paper shall examine the influence of market dynamics especially the commoditization of aesthetic quality in view of "what or who sells in Nollywood?"on film production and directing in Nigeria. This paper shall amongst other things, recommend that instead of down-grading or compromising standards in order to double the chances of making gains, producers and directors in Nollywood should rather aim for quality standards as this ''sells" better in the open market (of film festivals, awards and box office grossing) than inferior film products.

Keywords: Market Dynamics, Directing, Production, Nollywood.

Introduction

Film-making is essentially a business that involves the combination of several resources (materials, talents, man-power, and equipment) together to form or produce a product – film. As a product, film communicates information and ideas; takes the viewers on a journey, offering them a patterned experience that engages their minds and emotions (Bordwell & Thompson 3). Films are mostly made or produced in the hope that viewers or consumers pay to watch or as in the case in Nollywood, buy to watch at their convenience.

           In certain climes, film production are funded or sponsored by patronage (an investor or organization who wants to see the film made) or public money through government institutions set-up to oversee, support and/or subsidize film projects. Sometimes, an individual could decide to make a film independently. In such a case, s/he must bear the financial brunt of such an enterprise by him/herself. Thus, irrespective of the motivation or source of investment – independent, commercial, private or government – sponsored, film-making is a financially-laden transaction heavily influenced by the interplay of market forces or dynamics (supply, demand, value, quality, price, consumer satisfaction, etc.). These market forces or dynamics, as would be variously and selectively discussed in this work, constitute the determining factors of film patronage and profitability in terms of distribution, marketing, and customer reach in the open market.

Statement of the Problem

Market forces or dynamics do not exist as mere abstractions. They are, in fact, the results of interactions between the buyer and seller in the market place. A market is seen as an institution or mechanism that brings together buyers (demanders) and sellers (suppliers) of particular goods, services, or resources (McConnell & Brue 39). Markets exist in many forms; however, they are in existence, practically, as a result of all situations that link potential buyers with potential sellers. These situations are predicated, according to economic principles, by human wants and needs. The business of production depends heavily on the satisfaction of these wants and needs in a way that is profitable to the consumer and, most importantly, the producer. Hence, the basic economic questions: What to produce? How to produce? Whom to produce?

In terms of film production and directing, this paper shall seek to understand the influence of market dynamics on the production and direction of films in Nollywood; and whether or not film producers and directors take these things into consideration during the production process.

Research Questions

The following questions shall guide the focus of this paper:

  • To what extent do quality influence film production/directing in Nollywood?
  • To what extent does competition influence film production/directing in Nollywood?
  • To what extent does product value influence film production/directing in Nollywood?
  • To what extent does customer satisfaction influence film production/directing in Nollywood?

Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this paper is to measure the extent to which market dynamics influence the production/directing of films in Nollywood. The specific objectives are as follows:

  • Determining the extent to which quality influence film production/directing in Nollywood;
  • Finding out whether competition (within) the industry influence production/ directing standards in Nollywood;
  • Assessing the extent to which the value of film as a cultural product influence its production/directing in Nollywood;
  • Evaluating whether customer satisfaction influences film production/directing in Nollywood.

Research Hypotheses

  • Quality does not influence film production/directing in Nollywood.
  • Competition does not influence production/directing standards in Nollywood.
  • Product value does not influence film production/directing in Nollywood.
  • Customer satisfaction does not influence the production/directing of films in Nollywood.

Theoretical Framework

The theoretical foundation of this paper is based on the Market Orientation theory. This theory emerged in the 1990s through the pioneering works of Kohli and Jaworski, as well as Narver and Slater. Marketing Orientation is seen as a business philosophy which connects all the functional areas of the organization to environment in which it operates and ensures long-term profitability. According to Narver and Slater, market orientation consists of a focus on customer (customer orientation), an intimate understanding of competition (competitor orientation), and integration of all functions within the company to create superior customer value (interfunctional coordination) (20). Thus, providing superior customer value is key for maximizing long-term profit (Narver and Slater 21) and sustainable competitive advantage (Kumar, Subramanian, & Yauger 220). Dobri and Luffinan attest that an active integration of functional groups within the company to create superior value results in a behavioural culture that guides the way employees think and act (583).

            Marketing orientation theory has been the subject of research across many varied economic fields, ranging from marketing, strategic management, marketing management, human resources strategic management, organizational culture, public sector and film production. The majority of these studies were focused on the impact of market orientation on firm performance/profitability. According to Dawes’ study of 36 market oriented studies, a total of 33 found some positive connection between market orientation and firm performance. This growing evidence of a positive market orientation – performance link has generated increasing interest in the application of market orientation as a multi-disciplinary theory.

Literature Review

The centrality of marketing concept is considered as one of the most fundamental philosophical assumption of modern marketing theory (Heiens & Pleshko 20). Marketing concept dictates that in order to achieve sustained success, firms should identify and satisfy customer needs more effectively than their competitors. According to Lamb, Hair and McDaniel, firms that adopt and implement the marketing concept are said to be market oriented (75). This therefore follows Kirca. Jayachandran and Bearden’s assertion that market oriented firms engage in activities related to the generation and dissemination of customer and competitor-related market intelligence (37). Li and Calatone explain that those firms more adept at generating market knowledge will be able to achieve better performances because they will have better access to information about consumer preferences (23). However, market oriented firms go beyond mere collection of market-related information to actually share and implement ideas suggested from such knowledge across the firm’s departments. Kerin, Hartley and Rudelius note that the aim of such move is “to create greater customer value and satisfaction,” which is a pre-requisite for success (40). In addition, firm that exhibit high levels of market orientation are likely to identify, and seek to take advantage of opportunities presented in their markets (Narver & Slater 22).

            As shown in Im and Workman’s empirical study of on the role of New Products (NPs) and Marketing Programmes (MPs) creativity between market orientation concept and NP success, a relationship exist between product success and market orientation. In fact, Im and Workman note that much of the research investigating the market orientation concept suggest that firms which have better market knowledge are often more creative and innovative overall, which in turn, should lead to better overall long-term performance and profitability (110). This could be used contextually, to highlight some of the major deficiencies observed in Nollywood products.

            The film industry, generally, has been described from an economic perspective as being characterized by “the need for large capital investment that is difficult to obtain because of the high industry uncertainty, which express itself in a high risk for investors” (Morawetz 8). The risks associated with investment in the film industry tend to influence the decision-making and choices of both producers and directors; underscoring the need for a better understanding of the market dynamics (forces or factors) that determines or shape consumer patronage and product performance (profitability) in the market. These factors have been highlighted to include quality, competition, product value and customer satisfaction (Shultz 231-261); and are therefore consistent with market orientation perspectives. We shall attempt a concise discussion of these factors.

Quality

Quality in business has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something; it is also defined as fitness for purpose. According to Wikipedia, quality is a perceptual, conditional and somewhat subjective attribute understood differently by different people. In business aspect, quality is understood in five aspects:

  1. Producing – providing something;
  2. Checking – confirming that something has been done correctly;
  3. Quality Control – controlling a process to ensure that the outcomes are predictable;
  4. Quality Management – directing an organization so that it optimizes its performance through analysis and improvement;
  5. Quality Assurance – obtaining confidence that a product or service will be satisfactory (Wikipedia para. 2).

From the consumer standpoint, quality is viewed in terms of the product or service specification quality and how it compares to competitors in the market.

            Film scholars such as Andrew Rice, Femi Shaka, Barclays Ayakoroma, and others, have commented on the production quality of most Nollywood films. Ukata notes that the “producers of Nollywood films churn out volumes of videos without standardized publishing or production” (11). The reason for this inferior quality, as explicated by Ukata, is attributable to the format (video) of production which does not allow for extensive editing as is the case with celluloid film. Hence, the quality of the films is compromised. Oladele adds that the problem of low production quality is aggravated by piracy. This is so because the already low quality films are transferred from tape-to-tape during dubbing and mass-copying, thereby causing further reduction in the quality of pictures and sounds (para.15).

Another dimension to the question of low production quality in Nollywood is captured in Haynes’ account that financial realities in Nollywood do not give much scope for creative vision. According to him, “Nollywood films are made so fast (shooting typically takes about two weeks and often less), on such miniscule budgets, and under such unrelenting commercial pressures, that individual artists have few resources and little time to realize a distinctive vision (138-139). Schultz also sees this as one of the effects of piracy. In his estimation, such limitations are in part a result of the ‘cap’ piracy places on potential sales. Schultz notes that in a market where piracy rates are high, and no relatively secure outlet such as movie theatre exist, one of the few ways in which a producer can recoup their investment is through first-mover advantage. This implies that they only have a short time with which to sell their product before demand is cut off by piracy. as such, piracy puts a ‘ceiling’ on the size of the overall market for each film made in Nollywood, irrespective of opportunities afforded by the likely appeal of a film within the overall market (248-249). The resultant effect of such a strategy is such that producers are forced to limit the amount they spend on creative inputs as only the amount of creative inputs necessary to maximize profits within the very small market and short window of time left to them by piracy are explored (Schultz 250). Thus, many Nollywood producers/directors do not try to satisfy consumer yearnings for higher quality because that could be suicidal to business in terms of recouping investments. However, recent growth, re-emergence of movie theatres and the box office successes enjoyed by such high quality movies as the Figurine, Through the Glass, Ije, Half a Yellow Sun, October 1 and so on, seem to be engendering a rise in the number of producers and directors who pay significant attention and are committed to high production quality.

Competition

Competition, in economics, is seen as the rivalry among sellers trying to achieve such goals as increasing profits, market share, and rules volume by varying the elements of the marketing mix: price, product, distribution and promotion (Wikipedia para. 1). According to Merriam-Webster dictionary, competition in business, is the “effort of two or more parties acting independently to secure the business of a third party by offering the most favourable terms” (online). This is what necessitates commercial firms to develop new products, services and technologies, which would give consumers greater selection and better products. Narver and Slater explain competition under market orientation theory in terms of competitor orientation. According to them, this implies that a “seller understands the short-term strengths and weaknesses and long-term capabilities and strategies of both the key current and expected needs of the seller’s target buyers (Narver & Slater 21). Competition, in this regard, entails a firm’s commitment to acquire and integrate the knowledge of what other firms are offering in order to improve its production standards and marketing processes. It also includes identifying and adapting emerging technologies so as to enhance the firm’s ability in creating value to customers through the introduction of innovative products.

The film industry is a competitive market place, highly technical and dependent on technology. Nollywood is a dynamic, open market consisting of numerous small but independent film production firms (McCall 96). With little or no investment from government or funding from outside, these firms raise production capital on their own from private sources or the marketer. According to Ibitola, this practice is vaguely similar to pre-sale deals in Hollywood, where the producer gets an upfront from the marketer and after production the producer gets the master tape to the investing marketer. The marketer then produces blank media (DVDs) and mass produce the master tape in tens of thousands in relation to demand” (46). It must be noted however, that even within this operative framework, stiff competition exist as producers scramble to grab a share of what the cluttered and fragmented market has to offer. An indication of the sheer intensity of competition within the industry is evident in the number of films produced monthly as well as the volume of estimated legitimate sales (Schultz 250).

Product Value

Product value, also known in marketing as customer-perceived value, is the difference between a prospective customer’s evaluation of the benefits and costs of one product when compared with others; it may also be expressed as a straight forward relationship between perceived benefits and perceived costs (Wikipedia para. 1). Narver and Slater discuss product value as a component of “interfunctional coordination” (22). This is seen as the coordinated utilization of company resources in creating superior value for target customers. The process of creating and delivering value to customers is dependent on certain considerations collectively known as the “total market offering”. This includes the reputation of the organization, staff representation, product benefits, and technological characteristics as compared to competitors’ market offerings and prices (Wikipedia para. 4). As a result of prevalent low quality of Nollywood products, the customer-perceived value were correlatively low as captured in most scholarship on Nollywood. For instance, Schultz notes that whereas Africa’s subsidized film industry has enjoyed tremendous critical acclaim, “Nollywood is considered something of an embarrassment.” As a result of the “fast-and-cheap nature of the video film medium… it is not taken seriously as ‘cinema’ by cinema scholars” (256; Lobato 339). Also, Umeazinwa’s study of on the perception of Nnamdi Azikiwe University students on Nigerian home movies revealed that students do not perceive the Nigerian home movies as promoting cultural and moral values (48). Nevertheless, current trends in terms of higher production quality which have seen Nollywood productions exhibited in emerging cinema houses could in turn engender positive product value.

Customer Satisfaction

The target of every product is the consumer or customer (the end-user). This is why producers of goods and services try to anticipate the wants, desires and needs of the consumer by carefully analyzing the market in order to better understand consumer attitude, motivation and taste. This constitutes what Narver and Slater terms as customer orientation. It is the sufficient understanding of one’s target buyers to be able to create superior value for them continuously (21). Such knowledge requires that a seller thoroughly understand a buyer’s entire value chain, not only as dictated by current trends but also as “it will evolve over time subject to internal and market dynamics” (Narver & Slater 21).

            John, Sunny and Nkoro’s study of “Market Orientation Culture in Nollywood” indicated that customer focus in conjunction with competitive intensity is “critical to superior performance of the industry” and that since the industry is technology-driven and the business environment is dynamic and turbulent, there is a “payoff of being customer focus by anticipating and shaping customer needs and wants” (757). The lack of effective feedback-generating mechanism in Nollywood to collect, store and analyze customer data for future ‘predictiveness’ as identified in John, Sunny and Nkoro, is a major obstacle to the understanding and full scale implementation of market orientation culture in order to enhance production/ directing in Nollywood. This is because many producers/directors are yet to fully come to grips with the dynamics of the Nollywood market and its influence on consumer patronage, product performance and firm profitability. This is the lacuna this paper is attempting to bridge.

Methodology

A mixed method of descriptive and inferential survey was utilized in the course of this study. The population of the study comprised producers/directors of Nigerian films operating in Calabar. The exact number of population could not be determined due to the lack of functional secretariat in the city for the relevant professional bodies – Directors’ Guild of Nigeria (DGN) and the Association of Nigerian Film Producers (ANP). To overcome this administrative bottleneck, this study, utilizing the expert sampling method, sampled 100 independent producers/directors using a four-point rating scale questionnaire, entitled, Marketing Dynamics in Film Production and Directing in Nollywood Questionnaire. Four (4) directors/producers granted in-depth interview to the researchers which provided a deeper insight from industry players into how the industry operates. The hypotheses raised for the study were tested using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC) analysis.

Data Analysis

We have so far discussed the general background of the topic, reviewed relevant literature as well as the methodology used in carrying out the research. This section of the paper shall, however, present an analysis of the data gathered from the field.

Test of Hypotheses

Hypothesis One: Quality does not influence film production/directing in Nollywood. In order to test the above hypothesis, Pearson product Moment Correlation Analysis was computed as shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis (PPMC) of the influence of Quality on film production/directing in Nollywood

Variable                               ∑X               ∑X2           ∑XY         r-cal       r - crit         P<0.05

                                               ∑Y               ∑Y2

NOLLYWOOD                   1349             18337

MARKET                                                

                                                                                     18414       .300         0.207             *      

QUALITY                           1362             18682

* Significance at P<0.05 level; df = 98; calculated r-value = .300;

   Critical r-value = .207

The result in Table 1 above showed that, the calculated r-value of .300 was found to be greater than the critical r-value of .207 when tested at 0.05 level of significant. This implies that, the null hypothesis is therefore rejected. The result is significant. Thus, quality does influence film production/directing in Nollywood.

Hypothesis Two: Competition does not influence film production/directing standard in Nollywood. In order to test the above hypothesis, Pearson product Moment Correlation Analysis was computed as shown in Table 2.

Table 2: Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis (PPMC) of the influence of Competition on film production/directing in Nollywood.

Variable                                ∑X               ∑X2           ∑XY         r-cal       r - crit         P<0.05

                                               ∑Y               ∑Y2

NOLLYWOOD                   1349             18337

MARKET                                                

                                                                                     18591       .445         0.207             *      

COMPETITION                 1372             19072

* Significance at P<0.05 level; df= 98; calculated r-value = .445; Critical r-value = .207

The result in Table 2 above showed that, the calculated r-value of .445 was found to be greater than the critical r-value of .207 when tested at 0.05 level of significant. This implies that, the null hypothesis is therefore rejected. The result is significant. Thus, competition does influence film production/directing in Nollywood.

Hypothesis Three: The value of films does not influence film production/directing in Nollywood. In order to test the above hypothesis, Pearson product Moment Correlation Analysis was computed as shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis (PPMC) of the influence of Product Value on film production/directing in Nollywood.

Variable                              ∑X               ∑X2           ∑XY         r-cal       r - crit         P<0.05

                                               ∑Y               ∑Y2

NOLLYWOOD                   1349             18337

MARKET                                                

                                                                                     18369       .351         0.207             *      

PRODUCT VALUE           1357             18647

* Significance at P<0.05 level; df = 98; calculated r-value = .351;Critical r-value = .207

The result in Table 3 above showed that, the calculated r-value of .351 was found to be greater than the critical r-value of .207 when tested at 0.05 level of significant. This implies that, the null hypothesis is therefore rejected. The result is significant. Thus, product value does influence film production/directing in Nollywood.

Hypothesis Four: Customer satisfaction does not influence film production/directing in Nollywood. In order to test the above hypothesis, Pearson product Moment Correlation Analysis was computed as shown in Table 4.

Table 4: Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis (PPMC) of Customer Satisfaction and film production/directing in Nollywood.

Variable                                ∑X               ∑X2           ∑XY         r-cal       r - crit         P<0.05

                                               ∑Y               ∑Y2

NOLLYWOOD                   1349             18337

MARKET                                                

                                                                                     18186       .335         0.207             *      

CUSTOMER

SATISFACTION                 1344             18260

* Significance at P<0.05 level; df = 98; calculated r-value = .335;Critical r-value = .207

The result in Table 4 above showed that, the calculated r-value of .335 was found to be greater than the critical r-value of .207 when tested at 0.05 level of significant. This implies that, the null hypothesis is therefore rejected. The result is significant. Thus, the customer satisfaction does influence film production/directing in Nollywood.

Discussion of Findings

This paper attempted to provide some understanding of market dynamics and its influence on film production/directing in Nollywood. Market dynamics or factors were seen to arise from the interplay of several market indicators that underscores consumer wants, desires, needs and motivation. These indicators, as enunciated under the market orientation theory, include quality, competition, product value and customer satisfaction. Literature was reviewed to show how these dynamics interact to influence the demand or supply of film products in the Nollywood market. Our results show notable findings with respect to the influence of market dynamics on film production/direction in Nollywood.

            From the result of data analysis in Table 1, the finding reveals that quality does influence film production/directing in Nollywood. The quality of Nollywood films has been documented by scholars like Andrew Rice, Jonathan Haynes, Femi Shaka, Barclays Ayakoroma and so on, to be low owing to the prevalent operating culture in the industry. However, this result shows a cultural shift in this regard. There seems to be a change of attitude and focus amongst producers/directors towards film quality. This change is inspired by recent box office successes and critical acclaim (national and international awards) won by such films as The Figurine, Ije, Half of a Yellow Sun, October 1, and so on. As such, producers/directors are becoming more conscious of the quality of their productions.

            The result of data analysis in table 2 indicates that competition does influence film production/directing in Nollywood positively. This result is in line with Schultz’s assessment that the openness of the industry engenders competition. Competition in Nollywood is seen by industry players as a yardstick to measure the producer/director’s competence (in terms of skill, technique, creativity and ingenuity). Here, the success of a producer/director shows he competent enough and vice versa. Comparison of service delivery ensures industry players are constantly seeking to improve their skills and techniques so that their work would remain relevant in both the industry and society. Therefore, as a result of increasing competition, producers/directors are becoming more focused on producing/directing award-winning films.

Our result of data analysis in Table 3 shows that product value influence film production/directing in Nollywood. Although many Nollywood products are not valued due to the overwhelming poor quality of the productions as indicated in the study of scholars such as Schultz; Lobato and Umeazinwa, producers/directors contend that they are doing their outmost within production limits, to bring much of the values embedded in our cultures to the fore. as noted in Schultz, Nollywood films showcases and re-tell the unique stories of Africa from the African perspective (253-54).

            The result in table four shows that producers/directors are influenced by the need to satisfy their customers and they seek to understand customer taste and needs more. They do this through the monitoring of sales outcome. A high demand of their product suggests that the audience appreciates the film while a low demand would suggest the reverse. Other avenues of feedback include criticisms on radio, television, newspapers and social media or online platforms. As noted by John, Sunny and Nkoro, there is no integrated feedback mechanism with which customer data are collected, stored or analyzed for future reference.

           

Conclusion

From this study, market dynamics such as quality, competition, value and customer satisfaction are some of the motivating factors that influence film production/ directing in Nollywood. A deeper understanding of these market dynamics would help producers/directors augment their products both in terms of overall quality and value in order to ensure that they are better-place to satisfy consumer needs and wants. This will in turn, enhance the product’s performance in the market place. As suggested by the Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) values, the application of market orientation culture in Nollywood could re-position the industry’s products for better performance in both national and international markets.

Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study and the conclusion arising there from, the following recommendations are made:

  • Industry players in Nollywood should evolve an effective feedback mechanism that will collect, store, and analyze customer data so as to help in predicting future customer behaviour.
  • Producers/directors should be customer oriented by providing the quality and standard of productions customers need and want. Quality productions would not only perform well in the in terms of profitability and box office grossing alone, producers/directors would be better-placed to win critical acclaim through awards, recognition and industry presence.
  • Nollywood producers/directors should be competition oriented by being more insightful in terms of identifying emerging technologies that will assist in enhancing current and strategic positioning of the firm in terms of competitive edge.
  • Nollywood has grown tremendously to become a veritable source of foreign exchange earnings to the government of Nigeria as well as the second largest employer of labour apart from agriculture. The government should invest in the industry in order it contribute more to the nation’s economy.

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John, Amue G., Sunny, Igwe, & Nkoro, Friday. “Market Orientation Culture in Nollywood Industry: An Empirical Investigation of Film Makers and Producers in Nigeria.” International Journal of Business Management, Economics and Resources, 4 (4), 2013: 752-758.

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Lobato, Ramon. “Creative Industries and Informal Economies: Lessons from Nollywood.” International Journal of Cultural Studies, 13, 2010: 337-354.

Marawetz, Norbert. “Finance, Policy and Industrial Dynamics: The Rise of Co-Productions in the Film Industry.” Paper presented at Druid Summer Conference Copenhagen, Denmark, June 2007.

McCall, J. “The Pan-Africanism We Have: Nollywood’s Invention of Africa.” Film International, 2007: 92-93.

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Schultz, Mark F. “The Nigerian Film Industry and Lessons Regarding Cultural Diversity from Home Effects Model of International Trade in Films.” Transnational Culture in the Internet Age, 2012: 231-261.

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APPENDICES

MARKET DYNAMICS IN FILM PRODUCTION/ DIRECTING IN NOLLYWOOD QUESTIONNAIRE

Finest Communication TV/Film Academy,

                                                   Murtala Muhammed Highway,

                   Calabar,

                                 Cross River State,

                           June 5, 2015.

Dear Respondent,

REQUEST FOR THE COMPLETION OF QUESTIONNAIRE

We are independent researchers at the above-named film academy, conducting a study on the title: “Market Dynamics and its Influence on Film Production/Directing in Nollywood”.

Kindly assist us in supplying the following information to the best of your ability and sincerity. The information you supply is strictly for our research and shall be treated as confidential.

Thank you for accepting to be a part of this study.

Yours faithfully

Morison/Finest

(Researchers)

PART A: BIO-DATA

Instruction: Please select by ticking (√) an option as appropriate.

Name: (optional)………………………………………………………………………….

Age: 21 – 30 [ ] 31 – 40 [ ] 41 – 50 [ ]

Gender: Male [ ] Female [ ]

Status: Single [ ] Married [ ]

Highest Educational Qualification: School Certificate [ ] SSC/WASSC/ NABTECH [ ] OND/NCE/TC [ ] HND/Degree [ ] Higher Degree [ ]

I am a Film-maker:     Yes [ ] No [ ]

I produce or direct films: Yes [ ] No [ ]

I am a member of any of these professional bodies in Nollywood: Directors’ Guild of Nigeria (DGN) [ ] Guild of Nigerian Film Producers [ ] Independent Producer/Director [ ]

I have been producing/directing Nollywood films for: 1 – 5 yrs [ ] 6-10 yrs [ ] 11-15 yrs [ ] 16-20 yrs [ ]

I have produced/directed: 1-5 films [ ] 6-10 films [ ] 11-15 films [ ] 16-20 films [ ] Above 20 films [ ]

PART B: TEST ON VARIABLES

Instruction: Each item in this part has four (4) options of possible answers. Please tick (√) in the space provided for the option that agrees with your view of the statement.

Key: SA (Strongly Agree), A (Agree), D (Disagree), SD (Strongly Disagree)

S/N STATEMENT SA A D SD
  Quality        
1 Nollywood films are not of good quality.        
2 Producers/directors pay little attention to the quality of their products.        
3 Quality is sacrificed for profit and gain in Nollywood.        
4 The quality of a film is dependent on the amount of money invested in the production.        
  Competition        
5 The volume of films released into the market affects the chances of film companies making profit in the industry.        
6 Intense competition has raised the standard of film production/directing in Nollywood.        
7 The level of competition within the industry has inflated the cost of film production in Nollywood.        
8 Film production companies find it very hard to attract investments due to intense competition within the industry.        
  Product Value        
9 Nollywood films have little cultural value.        
10 Producers/directors in Nollywood are not interested in the cultural value of their products.        
11 Film is a valuable cultural product.        
12 The pricing of Nollywood films do not match the product value.        
  Customer Satisfaction        
13 There is no feedback mechanism for consumers of Nollywood films.        
14 Film content have an effect on consumer behavior.        
15 Nollywood films are produced/directed on what or who is popular among consumers.        
16 Producers/directors do not consider the satisfaction of target audience during film production.        

PART C: NOLLYWOOD MARKET

17 The volume of films supplied to the Nollywood market outweighs the number bought.        
18 Nollywood market is cluttered and fragmented.        
19 The quality of Nollywood film product affects its competitiveness with other markets.        
20 Piracy is a major threat to the growth of the Nollywood market.        

CORRELATIONS

VARIABLES = NOLLYWOOD MARKET QUALITY

PRINT = TWOTAIL NOSIG

STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES

MISSING = PAIRWISE

Descriptive Statistics
  Mean Std. Deviation N
NOLLYWOOD MARKET 13.49 1.185 100
QUALITY 13.62 1.153 100
Correlations
   

NOLLYWOOD

MARKET

QUALITY

NOLLYWOOD

MARKET

Pearson Correlation 1 .300**
Sig. (2-tailed)   .002
N 100 100
QUALITY Pearson Correlation .300** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .002  
N 100 100
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

CORRELATIONS

VARIABLES=NOLLYWOODMARKET COMPETITION  

PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG

STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES

MISSING=PAIRWISE.

Descriptive Statistics

  Mean Std. Deviation N
NOLLYWOOD MARKET 13.49 1.185 100
COMPETITION 13.72 1.583 100

Correlations

    NOLLYWOOD MARKET COMPETITION
NOLLYWOODMARKET Pearson Correlation 1 .445**
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 100 100
COMPETITION Pearson Correlation .445** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 100 100
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
             

CORRELATIONS

VARIABLES = NOLLYWOODMARKET PRODUCTVALUE

PRINT = TWOTAIL NOSIG

STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES

MISSING = PAIRWISE.

Descriptive Statistics
  Mean Std. Deviation N
NOLLYWOOD MARKET 13.49 1.185 100
PRODUCT VALUE 13.57 1.533 100
Correlations
    NOLLYWOOD MARKET PRODUCT VALUE
NOLLYWOOD MARKET Pearson Correlation 1 .351**
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 100 100
PRODUCT VALUE Pearson Correlation .351** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 100 100
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

CORRELATIONS  

VARIABLES = NOLLYWOOD MARKET CUSTOMER SATISFACTION  

PRINT = TWOTAIL NOSIG  

STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES

MISSING = PAIRWISE.

Descriptive Statistics
  Mean Std. Deviation N
NOLLYWOODMARKET 13.49 1.185 100
CUSTOMERSATISFACTION 13.44 1.409 100
Correlations
    NOLLYWOOD MARKET CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
NOLLYWOOD MARKET Pearson Correlation 1 .335**
Sig. (2-tailed)   .001
N 100 100
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Pearson Correlation .335** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .001  
N 100 100
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Map