TX Eventx - шаблон joomla Joomla

EJIGA, Faith Une: Cultural (Re) Construction of Women’s Positions as an Option to Western Feminist Thoughts: Mr. and Mrs. as Paradigm

Cultural (Re) Construction of Women’s Positions as an Option to Western Feminist Thoughts: Mr. and Mrs. as Paradigm

Faith Une EJIGA

Department of Theatre and Performing Arts

Ahmadu Bello University (ABU)

Zaria, Kaduna State

Email:

GSM: +234-806-712-1171

Abstract

One of the challenges that have bedevilled the human race today is the total relegation of women to the background. It must however be noted that in recent times this menace has taken a welcome dimension. Despite the efforts to locate a lasting solution to this problem the discrimination lingers on. It is against this background that this study focuses on how the position of Nigerian women can be reconstructed through the return to the cultural definition of their place. Apparently, the feminist’s manifestos have not really yielded the desired results. Women still wallow in the problem of discernment. This paper intends to locate how some films are helping or have helped in the redirection and construction of the place of women in Nigeria. The study adopts the qualitative research methodology and takes the instrument of content analysis. It embraces this to enable it look at how these films have redefined the position of women culturally. The study goes further to suggest that there is need to return to the original position of women. It concludes that now that feminism from the Western perspective has not helped greatly; and that our women should retrace their tracks to the natural position. Then equity, justice and equality that they seek through the eye of the Western feminism can be achieved through the eyes of African womanism.

Introduction

The issue of women being relegated to the background has occupied the front burner for decades now. In several of these cultures, despite the change impacted, on her by modernization, the woman is still largely marginalized. Although her image may be salutary and dignified, roles ascribed to her centre around those of housekeeping and mothering. This has tended to give her male counterpart an advantage of leading in most, if not all the social affairs, especially those that are public. This may have confined the woman to a smaller space than that of the man, while the man could explore public as well as more challenging avenues of life” (Evwierhoma 48).

            In Africa culture context, various cultural practices exist in African that does not exist in the Western world such as early marriage, female circumcision, marriage rites, traditional rites that implies male dominance over women, etc. because of this dimension, feminist concept differ significantly between the African women and western women. In order to achieve this struggle, which is to culturally acknowledge the need for woman empowerment and her emancipation without seeing the woman as totally reliant on the man, a lot of efforts has been put in place which is seen as an option to the western feminist ideology.

One of ways is the use of African movies, which showcases several injustices, domination and slavery of the African woman. They (the movies) also try to suggest ways on how these practices can be averted. This medium is seen as being effective by some eminent scholars in Africa due to the assumption that African movies posses the ability to reach a wider audience and also capable of engendering a rethink and sensitization on the need to empower the woman. This medium of movies has been beneficial for a long time especially in the context of portraying the western ideologies of feminism but how this can be spoken about in the use of movies to advance African feminist ideologies is left for us to conjecture. To advance the course of African feminist ideologies, a lot of movies have been produce with eminent focus on women empowerment and sensitization. Furthermore, female feminist writer and activists have been prolific in their various scholarly appeals how be it from the cultural platform.

Statement of the Problem

In this 21st century, one would have expected that with the events and the movements and education of women, especially in Africa and Nigeria, the rights of women would have been given attention with the view to ameliorating the image of women and reducing their subjugation which has led to their under development. But views tend to differ in this direction, African feminist scholars believe that the application of western ideologies has not given full attention to the issues of the African woman based on the fact that cultural and traditional differences abound. Now the African feminists are devising a different approach to address issues of feminism in Africa. This measure involves reconstructing a new image for the African woman through changing of negatives cultural practices. This has been the approach and one of the avenues that have been used to transport this message is through the African movies and in Nigeria specifically, Nollywood movies are of essence. Nollywood which many believe is becoming a strong force in the struggle has dedicated much time and energy in the production of movies that highlights issues of feminism. How effective this medium has been working towards the reconstruction of the women position as an option to Western feminist ideology is left to be conjectured. The therefore is the contention that we hope to resolve in this paper.

Aim of Study

The aim of this paper is to examine how Nollywood movies have been used to advance the reconstruct of African woman’s position as an option for Western feminist ideology using Nollywood movie Mr. and Mrs. in order for us to appraise the impact of such efforts and what more needs to be done to achieve more in this regard. The following are the objective of this study:

  1. To examine the feminist issues as raised in the movies Mr. and Mrs. has showcased the issue of feminism from the African cultural context;
  2. To examine how these issues have been addressed based on African cultural context; and
  3. To examine the benefits of using African cultural context to review feminism.

Justification of the Study

This study is important in a time like this where African women are seeking their own peculiar approach to pushing forward the frontiers of their arguments on feminism. This study would be beneficial to various groups of people who are in the struggle to see the emancipation and empowerment of women in Africa. These groups are: feminist writer’s playwright and poets, feminist directors and producers, women right groups and Nollywood as an umbrella body of movie producers. To the feminist playwrights and social analysts, it would give them the sense of direction on new approaches and concepts to bring to the fore and concept that needs to be debunked in the view of the reconstruction processes. To the director, it would assist them in the interpretation of the playwright’s scripts. It would also inevitably expose the issues that affect the approach which comes from views of the larger chunk of observers and viewers. To Nollywood as a body in particular, it will further bring to the fore the fact that as a formidable movie industry, based on the records of achievement and impact across vast audience, it has the strength of furthering the feminist struggle as well as enable Nollywood script writers and producers to fashion new methods and strategies on how to fuel a more debatable and issue based movies to project African image.

Scope of the Study

The understudy in this paper is Mrs. and Mrs., which is one of the several Nollywood productions that have intensively listed towards addressing issue of feminism in Nigeria. The reason for the choice of these movies is not farfetched. It showcases in a cultural dimension, some of the gender issues that are considered as vital in the family. At this point it is obvious that in Africa, the issues of feminism are more to be settled within the family circle. It is also important the background is a contemporary educated African family which goes further buttress the point that culture still plays a dominant role in the relationship between the man and the woman and as such highlighting the difference between the feminist concept in the west and Africa has been made possible.

On Feminism

Defining feminism is rather tasking owing to its vast dimension, and acceptability of a singular definition or concept is lacking. In furthering of this argument, Idegu asserts that “within the feminist elite, there are diversities of concepts and learning’s, with each group justifying, convincingly or otherwise, what make their concept , better, more African, more accommodating, or sometimes more racial and acceptable than the other” (74). In view of the difficulty of securing a general definition, several scholars have made their submissions clear on what feminism is as thus: The freedom to decide her destiny, freedom from sex determined roles, freedom from society’s oppressive restrictions: freedom to express her thoughts fully and covertly then freely into action. Feminism demands the acceptance of women’s right to individual conscience and judgment. It postulates that women’s essential worth stems from her common humanity and does not depend on another relationship of her life (Phillips 68).

This is one definition that is very explicit and covers wide ranging issues that are important for this study. From here, one can assume that the aim of feminism actually is not to benefit any specific group of women or class of women. It does not privilege women over men. On the contrary, it is a movement that has power to transform the whole society in a meaningful way (Obadiegwu 93).

            Furthermore, Idegu avers that, “one of the most contemporary and crucial movement in human history, especially championed by women and women issues is feminism” (74). He further asserts that, “feminists and feminist writers all over the world have over the years either “forced’, lured or enlightened people (both sexes) and attracted leadership and added attention” (page?). Although, at the onset, feminism was not considered as an issue that was going to attract any serious attention, maybe because it was new and people saw it as going contrary to the social status and no meaningful importance was ascribed to it. But as the voices of many women began to advocate for the rights of women, it became increasing glaring that it was attracting attention. Idegu corroborated this when he posits that “it is interesting to note that at the beginning of the 19th century, although individual women, and some men, were speaking out, it is doubtful how influential they were, other than to create awareness. There was little sign of change in the political.

Basically, the term feminism first appeared in France in the 1880s, Great Britain in the 1890s, and in the United States in 1910. It was the UK Daily News that first introduced “Feminism” to the English language, importing it from France and branding it as dangerous (Idegu 74). Ever since then, feminism has occupied the front in terms of global issues and discourse.

Feminist Issues in Nigeria

Before the advent of feminism worldwide, African women especially in Nigeria have been at it in the struggle for women empowerment in Nigeria. It cannot be seen as an offshoot of the advent of Western education or the conception of feminism by the Western world; although, contacts of Nigerian women with other nations can argued to have contributed in no small measure to the renewed vigour which has produced vast yielding result today. Idegu supports this argument when he succinctly stated that, “in Nigeria the birth of feminism and feminist aesthetics cannot but be traced to the contact of Nigeria with other nations of the world, especially the west where feminism already had strong roots” (81).

Awe made the point that women have been quite active, socially and politically, in the affairs of their communities in Nigeria (13). Also Onyekachi submits that, Women’s struggle for development in Nigeria dates to several decades before the country’s independence. Women in pre-independent Nigeria were in the forefront of the fight for rights, justice and equality. The likes of Queen Amina of Zauzzau, Moremi of Ife, Iyalode Efunsetan of Ibadan, Madams Emotan of Benin, and Tinubu of Lagos wielded power and made indelible marks on the sands of time (Onyekachi 1).

Historically, women in Nigeria have faced a wide spectrum of experiences in navigating through several hindrances that have confronted them. The culture of patriarchy, male chauvinism and anarchy has undermined the rights of women and the outcome of this is the exploitation and marginalisation of women in the affairs of development both at the private and public spheres.

Disparity between Western and African Concept of Feminism

The concept of feminism seems to reflect the same issues all over the world, which according to Hooks, centres around the disadvantage position of women in the society (page?). Contrary to this assertion, Obadiegwu categorically states that: Although Western feminism claims as it goals, the emancipation of all women from men’s oppression, it fails to take into consideration the participation of non western women and men in the whole feminist issue. In practice, it focuses on the needs of middle class white women in Europe and America while posing as the movement for the emancipation of all women (Obadiegwu 88). The implication of this assertion is that Western feminism does not represent the yearnings of the people of non western decent because their socio-political and economic conditions and desires and their ideas can hardly solve the problems of other races.

But women in Nigeria and Africa at large have rejected the ideology of feminism because feminism is what the upper class white women do and does not address African women’s problems. African women argue that the situation in African society differs greatly from that of the west and to use the same ideology as that of the west is tantamount to equating the same situation to the African women which cannot be justifiable in the sense that cultural disposition differs. Obadiegwu posits that based on this rejection, the African feminist have coined out different nomenclatures to proof this point. Some of the vocabularies include Africana Feminism), Motherism, Femalism and Black Feminism (88). Opting for African womanism by the African woman stems from the fact that, Womanism is an ideology created and designed for all women of African descent. It is grounded in African culture and therefore, it necessarily focuses on the unique experiences, struggles, needs and the issues of conflicts between the mainstream feminism (Weems 187).

It is noteworthy to state therefore that cultural difference exist that has given different approach and experiences to gender issues in Africa that contrast sharply with that of the west. Gender relations in Nigeria are characterized by a lot of imbalance to the disadvantage of women (Okafor page?). This is the twenty first century yet tradition, culture, religion and other factors have continued to widen the disparity between Nigerian men and women, by keeping women in a subordinate position to men. The larger society and the male subculture still see women and their aspirations as subordination, resulting in a situation in which the marginalization, trivialization and stereotyping of women are glaring aspects of Nigerian life.

In a similar vein, we see that where humans are not directly involved, laws (ancient and modern), customs, tradition and societal regulatory organs, most often than not, are guilty of enacting such laws that only wear male faces (Idegu page?). Three factors that even in the 21st century still widen the gap between the man and the woman include tradition, culture and religion (Okafor 55). This however is not the same case in the West. African culture and tradition has continued to exact overbearing influences on Nigerian women and deny them their fundamental human rights. There are some negative African cultural practices against women in Africa. For instance, Sikwese states that, “a man who has been perceived to have treated his wife well in Malawi is rewarded with his wife’s younger sister as thank you gift. This is in spite of the fact that the girl may be twice younger than the man and may not feel good about the idea” (80). Another negative practice in Africa is early marriage. A female child is given to an elderly man in marriage without the consent of the girl once the parents of the girl have given their support. Somehow, the child’s age generally is not an issue. Culture has not shifted from placing wives under their husbands and as such culture is generally not only in Africa, is gender insensitive and has never been gender sensitive. In the interim, unless a deliberate process of social-cultural engineering is launched to influence cultural values, beliefs, attitudes and norms, the problem affecting women will remain (Sikwese 80).

            Other practices such as female circumcision, female education is dominant in the African cultural practices. In most African societies, the female child is not considered as an asset to the family because in the future she would be given out in marriage and the male child remains to continue the. As a result, the male child is given preference in terms of education. This has limited the number of women who are allowed to enrol in schools in such societies and has invariably affected the education of the girl child. It has also affected their self-esteem, confidence and well being.

            Be that as it may, the position of African women towards emancipation, development and freedom from the shackles of male domination cannot be done without a meaningful cultural reconstruction. Cultural reconstruction is a concept that seeks to realign the essence of the woman. It is a neo liberation strategy to reinvent the image of the woman giving her the necessary apparatus to free herself from cultural oppressions. This has been a recent development within the African feminist concept and it has been pioneered by feminist writers and further translated into feminist sensitive movies. Feminist writers and atavists have had reasons to make use of movies scripts, and plays to advance their course and one lucrative platform is Nollywood.

Nollywood significantly has been a platform where feminists have used as spotlight to project women empowerment and emancipation because of its strength in terms of incorporating indigenous cultural forms. The trust imposed on Nollywood by feminists is as a result of Nollywood acclaimed as the world's second largest producer of feature films; it has undeniably grown from nothing into a $250 million dollar-a-year industry that employs thousands of people in the past 23 years. Nollywood settings are familiar. Nollywood plots depict situations that people understand and confront daily; romance, comedy, the occult, crooked cops, prostitution, and HIV/AIDS, etc. Nollywood films are proving popular all over English-speaking Africa and have become a staple on M-NET, the South Africa-based satellite television network.

Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework for this paper is hinged on the critical feminist line of critical thinking as stated by (Itayavyar & Obiajunwa 20). This theory is a theory that emphasizes total change towards the plight and essence of the woman inadvertently, imploring all to see the need to support the course of the woman’s emancipation. This argument fronts the importance of liberating the woman to include creating a better society, values and development. The argument follows that developing the woman is developing the world. Stopping segregation and enhancing the rights of the woman is tantamount to liberating the society. They argue that theory of feminism as a theory of change holds that the long established myths and even jokes that misrepresent or down grade women should be abolished to allow room for a new and better socialization process in society which will not deny women their rightful position in society.

Synopsis of Mr. and Mrs.

Mr. and Mrs. is a Nollywood movie which thematically centres on the home front, basically hinged on two families embroiled in marital tussles. It showcases the struggle of the man to prove his superiority over the woman and to reinstate his role as the head of the family. It also captures the struggle of the woman in the bid of liberating herself from her disadvantaged position which the society has placed on her as a helper of the man within the institution of marriage. The setting is that of an educated, well-to-do middle classed Nigerian families, whereby the key characters are armed with quality education and meaningful exposures in live.

The first family depicts Ken Abbah, a young Director and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of an oil firm who is married to a lawyer, Susan, and following her husband’s instruction is a full time housewife. Susan is faced with the challenge of having her husband appreciate her efforts and in return shower her with his love. Despite giving Ken all the love, he finds it difficult to reciprocate, making life hell for her. Susan is portrayed as not coming from a rich background as her husband, Ken. She tries to satisfy her husband doing whatever her husband wanted, but Ken is hard to please. In the bid to restore her husband’s love and respect, Susan decided to opt for a divorce through her counsellor. Although she was not intending to leave her matrimonial home but she used that as subterfuge to her husband back. It work out at the end that the plan was well orchestrated and events made Ken and her family to change and respect her, restoring all that she (Susan) ever desired as a wife and a mother.

The second family (Charles and Linda) has Linda dominating her husband because she happens to be the bread winner of the home. The wife is seen as playing the role of the husband, providing for the family, giving so much time to her career job, coming back late from the office and sending her husband on errands. Because the husband was not financial buoyant, he had to play low and with the care of the house help it was easier for Charles to pretend as a loving father and a husband. It played out that the relationship between Linda’s husband and her house help was discovered and the trust bestowed on him was shattered. However, the issue was resolved and the family got back together. In the running events, the two families were resolved.

It is pertinent, at this juncture, to analyze some of the scenes as they relate to issue of feminism and which part and important to the objectives of this study.

Feminism Related Issues in the Mr. and Mrs.

The issue one finds within the context of African feminism ideology is quite elucidating. The key issues of feminism revolve around the betterment and general developments of the woman (Idegu 74). The disturbing issues which constitute what the African woman has over the years cried out for change as showcased in the movie understudy are discussed marriage, divorce, infidelity, male dominance, cultural and traditional limitations placed on women. Others include the rights of women to earn a living in various careers of their choice, social security and justice. Within this movie, these issues have been addressed and it is important to look at how these issues have been addressed such that the society can learn and in turn the advancement of the course of feminist ideologies is enhanced.

The Ego of the Man

Male ego has is one of the contending issues raised by the African feminist. It has constituted a major setback in the relationship between the man and the woman especially in marriage. This is the case at the beginning of the movie where Ken Abah comes down to have breakfast before going to work, notices that the ‘moi moi’ (bean cake) that is served is stale. He reminded the wife that he does not eat stale food. The wife (Susan) argued that the food was not stale as she woke up early to prepare it herself. He tells her that and then he walks off to the office living the wife crying profusely. He comes back in the evening and the wife was busy in the kitchen and he reminded her that “the role as my wife does not end in the kitchen.” This scene shows example of male ego right here in play.

Often times, it is not as if the man does not have the feelings or conscience to discern that most of his activities against the woman are wrong. But conceding to this is considered as a weakness. So the man keeps up at this attitude to remind the woman that he is in charge. Susan acknowledged that Ken’s attitudes towards her were not like that at the initial stage. At 24:48minutes, Susan said, “I want the man I fell in love with. I can’t seem to find him; I have lost him to arrogance and social strata.” Arrogance was also shown at 4:58minutes when Mr. Abbah told his wife, “if you are no longer happy being my wife” and then Susan answered, “Slave” and he said, “Whatever,” “They are a thousand and one out there who want to be called Mrs. Abah.”

This scene points to the fact that the man during courtship is not prone to exercising so much of male egos. But such attitudes crops up in marriage and this is due to the need to be in control.

Influence of the Extended Family on Marriage

The influence of extended family was brought into play by the incursion of Ken’s mother in the running of the family which was not a welcome idea for Susan who feels that the extended family should be left out in the core issues of their marriage. This also has an African dimension. In African society, marriage is not only between the husband and the wife alone. It is normal to accommodate members of the extended families. Going contrary to this development can portend a very strong frustration for a successful marriage. In the western world, extended families are not really considered as part of the family although not in many cases. We have seen cases where extended family surfaces in the western societies. However, it is not so common.

Infidelity in Marriage

Infidelity was observed in the two families as well. The husband of Linda was cheating on his wife with the house help (Kate) and Ken on the other hand is seen as also involving in some relationship suspected to indicate infidelity by the wife. At A phone call suggested that he was having an affair at 15:25minutes of the movie. Infidelity is a serious issue in the western societies but in the African society, the gets away with it. In some instances the man is allowed to marry more than one wife and also keep several concubines. But with the western marriage system which has been adopted in many African societies, there is a limit to this. This issue has contributed to unhappiness in many homes.

Wife Manhandling

Ken was seen manhandling the wife. At 18:57minutes into the movie, Ken was seen grapping the wife by the neck saying “you now talk back at me?’ Susan rushing into the kitchen and brandishing a pestle responded “no, you don’t touch me like that.” “I swear to God I will kill you next time you touch me like that. Can you imagine me, a lawyer in your kitchen?” “Yes! Courtesy to my family who sent you abroad for your masters programme, where was your wretched family?”

The Woman’s Role in the Home

From the movie, it is clear that the African woman does not intend to abdicate her roles as the keeper of the home, mother and wife; but the she wants most of all, and the understanding of her husband and extended family in carrying out these responsibilities. Susan was complying with her duties as a wife and mother although it was not appreciated by Ken but on the other hand neglecting the roles of the woman is clearly seen in the second family. In 10:09 minutes, Linda on her way to work stops to ask the house help if there is stew in the house and the house help says no that stew has finish. Angry, she demands to know why she (the house help) did not let her know on time and the house help replies that she has made a list of things needed in the house. She replies, “Give ‘oga’ the list he will give you money to go to the market of items to buy.”

Here the Linda was seen neglecting her duties of taking care of her home. She abdicated it for her high profile career as a result Linda got her husband to cheat on her with the house help Kate because she was always away at work and coming home late. But is however, clear that Linda believes that lording over the husband was the best way to treat a man and bring him under control. At 17:25 minutes, Linda says: “I told her that that t is the problem. How can you be a robot and a zombie for a man? All the love and respect should come from him. After all, you left your family to be with him. My husband Charles understands this.”

A Happy Home

In the African society, every woman wants a happy home. Around 24:29minutes into the movie when the counsellor asked Susan: “Do you still want this marriage?” She answered: “Not the way it is! I want happiness; I want a happy home.”

Looking for Professional Help

The movie advocates that in situations where the two parties cannot resolve their differences, it is pertinent to seek for professional help. In the traditional African society, there are various places to seek help but in the contemporary society, professionals abound and it is important that such avenues can be of immense assist in marital issues. The counsellor in this movie, despite hearing the sort of stories that Susan told about the attitude of her husband, was not apt in jumping into conclusion. She invites the husband to find out what the problem was with a little bit of advice. This is seen as a way of approaching the issue giving the man respect despite the seemingly negative attitudes toward the woman. This is an approached that welcomes the idea of employing communication in the bid to and resolving conflicting issues especially in marriage.

Looking for a Solution Instead of Divorce

In the Western culture, it is easier to get a divorce. This is partly because in the west, being a single mother or a divorce is really not an issue that the society frowns at; although it is not generally acceptable in all cases. But in Africa, divorce and single motherhood places some form of social scarce on the woman most especially and as such divorce is never the option. Base on the movie, the family of Ken had to plead for a quite divorce when Susan requested for a divorce because it was going to affect Ken’s father who was aspiring for an elected office of a governor. This goes further to show that divorce was capable of militating against his political ambition and also could bring shame to the family, because on the whole, divorce is not accepted in the African society. At 26:02minutes, Ken’s mother advises: “Your father is running for governorship, remember; and scandal is what we don’t need.”

Communication as a Viable Tool

The visit of Ken and Susan appeared before the marriage counsellor who apart from being a lawyer, a psychologist is also known to have assist married couples to regain their marriage. Emphasis on the need for communication is vital in marriage as far as Africa culture is concern. Although culture and tradition bestows the headship of the home to the man, it does not mean that man is exempted from being counselled or opened to dialogue. This was clearly shown at 20:18 minutes.

Findings

The following findings from the movies are crucial to this study:

  1. It is clear from the movie that there seem to be a clear cut difference between the Western ideologies about feminism. There are certain practices that are not allowed in the real sense of it in African culture. Therefore the idea is such that prevents fallout as a result of following Western ideologies since such cannot be entirely appropriate in terms of application. For instance, the African feminist ideology does not accept divorce; the Western feminist sees it as a way out without the society really frowning at it. So as much as the African woman wants freedom and respect from the husband, at the same time she does not want to have that freedom as a single lady or mother. Therefore, the picture of a black African woman who wants freedom is within her matrimonial home.
  2. The African feminist accepts the fact that the man is the head of the home but at the same time she does not want to be a slave under the man. This is clearly seen in the movie understudy.
  3. Similarly, the movie has brought to us the reality that several options can be approached in the quest for finding lasting solutions to misunderstanding of marriage.
  4. Furthermore, by all these presentation, it is obvious that Nollywood movies have been able to portray African feminist position vividly and this is seen as an option to Western feminist approach as we seen in most Western movies. This goes a long way to by reason of correction debunk some shared views about the insinuations that western approach to feminism is acceptable to all.

Recommendation

The following recommendations are however imperative:

  1. Since African feminist ideologies differ significant from that of the western concept, on the basis of cultural diversities, it is imperative that more efforts by African feminist should emphasis the addressing these issues considering cultural reconstruction as a viable option.
  2. Since the feminist movement in Africa accepts the cultural aspects that makes the man the head of the home in issues of marriage, it is therefore important that such measures as engendering male understanding and mutual coexistence where respect is mutual in the bid to fostering mutual coexistence.
  3. Furthermore, Nollywood movies should bee seen as a veritable tool and a platform for the advancement of the course of women liberation, development and empowerment.

Conclusion

Distinctively, culture and tradition varies all over the world. In Africa, culture is seen as a way of life of the people. This position has affected all spheres of live in Africa in particular including the feminism as a concept. The adherence to cultural practices that has affected or limited the emancipation of the woman has been seen as issues that requires reconstruction in all fronts. This has necessitated the use of Nollywood movies as a platform that has ever increasing outreach, to most of all present the issue of women liberation, empowerment and development. This is as a result of the rejection of the Western ideologies by the African feminist based on the diversities in cultural difference. The African feminist seeks to reconstruct the image of the woman from the cultural perspective because it is through that means that their aspirations can be thoroughly approached to yield the desired result because of the peculiarity of African culture. By and large, Nollywood movies have proven to have assisted in the propagation of the feminist ideologies in Nigeria and Africa at large.

Works Cited

Acholonu, Catherine. Motherism: The Afrocentric Alternatives to Feminism. Owerri: Afa Publications, 1995.

Awe, Bolanle. Nigerian Women in Historical Perspective. Ibadan: Sancore & Bookcraft, 1992.

Evwierhoma, Mabel. Female Empowerment and Dramatic Creativity in Nigeria. Ibadan: Caltop Publication, 2002.

Hooks, Bell. Outlaw Culture: Resisting Representation. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Hudson-Weems, C. African Womanism: Reclaiming Ourselves. Troy, MI: Bedford Publishers, 1993.

Idegu, Emmy. “Historical Overview, Global Outlook, Topical Relevance and Applicability of Feminism.” In Irene Salami-Ogunloye (Ed.), Feminist Aesthetics and Dramaturgy. Kaduna: TW Press & Publishers, 2009.

Ityavyar, D. A. & Obiajunwa, S. N. “Alternative Theoretical Approaches to Women Studies.” In TheState and Women in Nigeria. Jos: University Press, 1992.

Kohrs-Amissah, Edith. Aspects of Feminism and Gender in the Novels of Three West African Women Writers: Aidoo, Emecheta, Darko. Heidelberg: Books on African Studies, 2002.

Obadiegwu, E. “From Alternative Ideology to Theoretical Diversities: African Women Rights Advocates and the Politics of Feminism.” In Irene Salami-Ogunloye (Ed.), Feminist Aesthetics and Dramaturgy. Kaduna: TW Press & Publishers. 2009.

Okafor, A. C. “Gender Inequality in Nigeria.” Oasis Journal, 1(1), December 2010.

Onyeakachi, C. “40 Years Independence: Women Development: An Overview.” Paper Presented at the National Workshop on “Women, Home and State Building: Issues, Perspective and Challenges, 5-7 Sept. 2000.

Phillips, A. “Feminism and Equality.” Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd.

Salami-Agunloye, Irene. Feminist Aesthetics and Dramaturgy. Kaduna: TW Press & Publishers, 2009.

Sikwese, Mayeso. “Culture was Gender Sensitive: The Damage Caused by Books.” Indaba ’99: Women’s Voices, Gender, Books and Development. Harare: Zimbabwe International Book Fair Trust, 1999: 80-85.

Walker, Alice. In Search of Our Mother Gardens: Womanist Prose. San Diego: Harcourt, 1983.

Map